Campylobacter

Campylobacter

彎曲杆菌是全球傳染性細菌性腸炎(食物中毒)的最常見原因。有兩個引起人類疾病的物種,彎曲杆菌空腸accounts for over 90% of infections causing disease andCampylobacter coli組成剩餘的。隨著全球彎曲杆菌感染的發生率上升,國際上的關注越來越大。

Campylobacter infection displays marked seasonality, peaking in late spring and early summer. This may be due to changes in the shedding/colonisation of彎曲杆菌空腸by the natural hosts and changes in human behaviour such as BBQs and swimming in non-disinfected waters, e.g. streams, which can lead to increased risk of exposure to Campylobacter. Both species of Campylobacter are found in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of wild or domesticated animals which show no sign of disease. In poultry, they multiply in the hindgut.

食物中毒的症狀

彎曲杆菌空腸causes an illness known as Campylobacteriosis, which is more commonly known as gastroenteritis. The incubation period is two to seven days and infection in humans causes acute (bloody) diarrhoea lasting about five days, accompanied by fever and abdominal pain. The bacterial cells adhere to the walls of the intestinal tract where they damage the walls and produce toxins. The disease is usually self-limiting, however, approximately 0.05% of patients develop Guillain-Barre syndrome (a temporary inflammation of the nerves causing pain, weakness and paralysis) from which 25% recover, 1% suffer from reactive arthritis lasting from a few weeks to months, and 0.01% develop inflammatory bowel disease.

食物中毒的來源

彎曲杆菌感染被認為主要是食源性疾病,其中動物起源的食物起著重要作用。除了與食物有關的病例外,與寵物動物的密切接觸和與休閑水有關的活動每年都會導致大量人類疾病。流行病學研究表明,散發性彎曲杆菌感染與消耗未煮熟的雞肉和乳製品的消耗是與疾病(> 5歲)和澳大利亞成年人相關的主要食品。與幼犬接觸,寵物雞也是一個重要的危險因素。彎曲杆菌病的大規模暴發相對較少,但含義的來源是原始牛奶和未經處理的地表水。大多數彎曲杆菌感染是零星的單病例或較小的家庭暴發,很少發現來源,因為疑似食物經常被食用或不再可用。

Farm level

家禽的汙染起源於初級生產。188宝金博 ios下载研究已經確定了農業區彎曲杆菌的廣泛動物和環境來源,包括:

  1. 家庭和農場動物,包括寵物狗和貓,野鳥,農場動物(牛,綿羊,豬,鴨,火雞)
  2. Insects (beetles, flies)
  3. 齧齒動物(小鼠,大鼠)
  4. 環境 - 土壤,空氣,水(遊泳水,休閑溪流,消毒的廢水,水坑,池塘水,地表水),原生動物,野生鳥類和野生動物

將彎曲杆菌汙染引入家禽羊群的關鍵危險因素是人類交通。188宝金博 ios下载其他危險因素包括設備運動,與牛一起工作,在混合物種農場上種植肉雞,蒼蠅,黑暗甲蟲及其幼蟲,堆肥死肉子屍體的堆肥,以前的羊群/羊群不足周期中斷的感染,羊群之間的不足周期,部分植物的偏移羊群,圍繞棚子和地表水汙染。在農場層麵上的彎曲杆菌的幹預策略集中在解決這些問題上,並改善了生物安全性,包括:

  • Hand washing/sanitising on entry to broiler shed
  • Limiting access to broiler sheds to essential personnel
  • 清潔和消毒設備在棚屋之間移動,例如秤
  • 寵物和牲畜無法進入肉雞周圍的區域
  • 衛生障礙將在所有棚屋中建造,在該棚子上,人員越過障礙物並更改為專用的棚子鞋類
  • 棚中鳥類數量稀疏的最佳實踐指南,以最大程度地降低風險
  • Improved farm management practices – high levels of Campylobacter are more likely to be associated with flocks with poor litter management
  • 供水衛生
  • 單特異性農場(沒有其他農場動物)
  • 羊群之間的棚屋或延長的休息時間改善了清潔和消毒
  • Improved darkling beetle/larvae control

However, it should be noted that intensified biosecurity, environmental and management programs have met with limited success in reducing the prevalence of flocks contaminated with Campylobacter.

Processing level

Additional measures in subsequent stages of the food chain may need to be developed to further reduce the contamination of poultry meat with Campylobacter. Methods such as rapid freezing, vacuum drying/cooling and chlorine sprays/chlorination of processing water are all methods currently being trialled worldwide.

Consumer level

預計不會在短期內提供無彎曲杆菌的家禽。188宝金博 ios下载廚房中的交叉汙染已被確定為造成食源性疾病的主要原因。改變消費者行為的幹預措施,例如清潔廚房用具,切割板,水龍頭等,可以大大降低彎曲杆菌病的發生率。

Future action

世界衛生組織等機構中對雞彎曲杆菌的國際風險概況和評估正在進行中,總體目的是顯著降低彎曲杆菌的食源性疾病。減少雞彎曲杆菌的策略將包括初級生產,加工和消費者教育。旨在減少家禽肉汙染的幹預措施預計將顯著促進人類疾病發病率的降低。188宝金博 ios下载

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